Scientific Overview

Collagen is a protein of the connective tissue, which makes up about 30% of the body’s protein for mammals. Collagen is the main biopolymer for living beings and fulfils a very important function in the correct functioning of the system. This fibrous protein of the connective tissue comprises 70% of the skin and is a necessary element of the human skeleton. Its unique physical and chemical features ensure the transfer of forces from the sinews and maintain the appropriate firmness and flexibility of the skin.

Collagen is a homogenous protein. A total of 20 genetic types of collagen have been isolated, which differ in terms of the composition of its parts, mass and length of the molecule, the composition and sequence of amino acids, degree of hydroxylation of proline and lysine radicals, degree of glycolysation of hydroxylysine radicals, spatial structure, location in the tissues and the characteristics of biosynthesis and post-translational transformations. To a small extent they differ in types of their parts, amino acid composition, other elements and the ability to create fibres. However, common for all genetic types is that they are built from three polypeptide alpha strands. What is more, in all types of collagen a substantial part of the macromolecule has a triple helix structure while the N- and C- elements have globular structures.

Collagen is a protein with a specific amino acid composition. The protein contains a significant amount of glysine, proline and alanine, which comprise approximately 60% of all the amino acids. In addition, due to post-translational changes, collagen contains specific amino acids like recurring 3- and 4-hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine. The alpha chain contains a tripeptide sequence of glysine-X-Y, where X is most common proline and Y the most common hydroxyproline. The alpha chain is formed for all the amino acids, but the quantity is variable and depends on the type of tissue, species, race and gender.

Biosynthesis

The biosynthesis of collagen begins in the polyribosomes of the endoplasmatic reticulum with the synthesis of pro-alpha 1 and pro-alpha 2 chains of procollagen of 150kDa. As the procollagen chain is enlarged some radicals of proline and lysine are hydroxylated. The medium part of procollagen chain has a constellation of sinistral, expanded helixes finished on both sides with non-braided sections, the so-called closing propeptides of type N and C. Those fragments are responsible for the proper aggregation and transport of individual chains. Thanks to the intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds used in closing propeptides, three chains of procollagen have a parallel structure where the medium part is twisted to the right. Such procollagen is secreted through the cell membrane where two endopeptidases remove both prolonging sections. In this way fresh procollagen comes into being and undergoes polymerization to fibrils by chain and parallel connections. What is more, the consolidation of the molecule is maintained by weak interactions, i.e. hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen as well as strong interactions, i.e. ionic and covalent between individual alpha chains of tropocollagen. Tropocollagen (ripe alpha molecule with collagen chains) can be a homotrimer, built of 3 identical chains or heterotrimer of 2 or 3 different chains.

Due to its biological features – non-toxicity, biocompatibility with all living beings and frequency of appearance, collagen is used as a biomaterial in medicine, pharmaceuticals and the cosmetics industry.

Collagen is not a static protein; throughout life it is continuously being exchanged. Old fibrils disintegrate and are replaced by new ones, although after the age of 25 the old fibrils begin disintegrating faster than new ones are formed. This process escalates with age and eventually leads to visible results: at first the skin is a little drier and then there are small mimic wrinkles, which later deepen.

There are many factors that lead to premature damage to the natural collagen structure, e.g. ultraviolet light, smoking, pollution, long-term work in front of a computer, stress and an unsuitable diet. It has been proved that high doses of radiation can damage the natural structure of collagen – even causing its denaturation. Research up till now has shown that solutions of collagen lose their ability to produce fibrils in the presence of high doses of radiation, and the photochemical processes result in netting, as well as in degradation. The main chromofores absorbing UVs in the collagen are automatic amino acids: tyrosine and phenylalanine. The type of photochemical reactions and their effectiveness depends on the presence of substances concurrent with this protein.

Collagen I (2[alpha1I]alpha2) contains two peptide chains of alpha 1 type I and one alpha 2 type I. Collagen I is a typical representative of skin collagen in mammals, in the connective tissue it is linked to one molecule of glycosaminoglycan.

Other Elements of Natural Inventia Collagen

Another ingredient of our cosmetics is lactic acid. Lactic acid is a fruit acid belonging to the group of alpha hydroxyl acids (AHA). What is more lactic acid is a “green” biomaterial since it is obtained from natural sources and is fully biodegradable. The acid is obtained by means of biotechnological fermentation of sugar by the bacteria of lactic acid (Lactobacillus). It is worth noting that this substance has GRAS status, which means it has been generally acknowledged as being safe.

Lactic acid, depending on the concentration, has peeling, regenerating and moisturizing characteristics (in our collagen it is used for peeling and moisturizing). The acid works best at a pH of 3 to 4 (as in our product). Clinical research has proved unequivocally that preparations containing fruit acids have a positive influence on the condition and looks of the skin. Such preparations are recommended for dry skin with visible signs of aging.

Excessive expansion of epidermis cells makes the skin thick and matt. Lactic acid is a small molecule and thus can easily be absorbed. The acid loosens the corneocyte layer of the epidermis by melting the substance that bonds individual cells together, and so allows for the dry skin to peel. As a consequence the natural peeling of the epidermis is controlled and the cells in the deeper layers, mainly fibroblasts responsible for the synthesis of collagen and elastin, are stimulated to renew. What is more, the regular use of fruit acids means that the skin absorbs water more effectively, which is explained by the increase of ceramids in the epidermis due to the stimulation of their biosynthesis by AHA acids. Thus fruit acids not only do not damage the protective skin barrier, but also substantially improve it. Increasing the amount of fibrous proteins and water in the deeper parts of the skin smoothes wrinkles and lines on its surface, improving its looks.

Preparations with lactic acid are recommended in summer and in winter when the skin is tired by either the sun or the cold, thus requiring special care to reduce small wrinkles or brighten small pigment spots. Another advantage of lactic acid is that it is an effective catalyst of transition through the skin, which means that it facilitates the absorption of other substances, including nutritious and regenerating ones.

Caprylyl Glycol is another ingredient of the product. It is a new addition used to produce our collagen. Caprylyl Glycol is identical to the natural substance, which means it is synthesised by the human body and its structure is the same as that of a natural compound. This ingredient, thanks to its structure, is a moisturizing (humectant) and gently lubricating factor. The presence of short chain fatty acids facilitates the absorption of our product into the skin and prevents water from escaping, thanks to the gentle lubrication effect.

The last ingredient is water. In the process of producing our collagen gel we use high quality spring water from a very clean area of the country. The water has a positive opinion from the Institute of Mother and Child and it is recommended for newborns. Natural Collagen Inventia is a natural cosmetic containing 5 ingredients, the most important one being collagen as it has a structure like the native triple helix.

Natural Collagen Inventia is a natural preparation, obtained from the skins of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix by means of gentle extraction in the laboratory.

Usage characteristics:

  • Does not contain PRIONS, a prominent ingredient in animal based collagen and other proteins use in cosmetics.
  • Easily absorbed.
  • ABSOLUTELY NO PRESERVATIVES.
  • Does not cause skin irritation or allergies.
  • Well tolerated by the skin.
  • Improves the look of the skin.
  • Gently peels off the epidermis and speeds renovation.
  • Brightens pigmented spots and improves skin color.
  • Improves the skin’s ability to hold moisture (water).
  • Visibly improves the level of skin tightening (wrinkle reduction) in the area of application.
  • Smoothes skin in the area of application.
  • Increases skin firmness reducing the visibility of mimic wrinkles.
  • Creates a protective layer preventing water from escaping through the epidermis.
  • Stimulates the body to produce its own collagen.
  • Recommended for intensive care of every type of complexion, especially mature, dry and sensitive skin, at home as well as in beauty parlors.
  • Can be used as a component of cosmetic and pharmaceutical production.
  • Does not change the color or smell of cosmetics.

On-line sale

Exclusive distribution for CR and SK with 10% discount
shop.kolagen-inventia.cz

 

Business cooperation 

Vhodné pro kosmetické salony, studia, wellnes zařízení, prodejce kosmetiky, kliniky plastické chirurgie, e-shopy

Microbiological review

Natural Collagen Inventia fulfils the microbiological requirements describedin the Ordinance of the Minister of Health of 23 December 2002 and it is not dangerous to the health in terms of microbiological clarity.

Research

The preparation was evaluated in terms of safety for people. The independent Specialized Testing Laboratory “ITA-TEST” S.C. Institute of Dermatological, Application and Chemical Research of Cosmetics and Household Chemicals confirm all beneficial characteristics. We are also fully cooperate with the Chemistry Department of Gdańsk University.

Production control

Natural Collagen Inventia is produced according to the rules of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP). The quality of Inventia collagen is constantly monitored. All preparations are regularly tested for microbiological contamination at an independent centre. We do our utmost to provide our customers with the safest and best product in thiscategory.

Structure and composition

The preparation contains 95-97.5% of water. The dry preparation contains 89.9% of proteins. Collagen amounts to 75% of the whole protein fraction. The electroforetic analysis in denaturating conditions has proven its ternary structure (120kDa) and the alpha of the native collagen. The triple helix has a subunit (220 kDa). Individual subunits amount to 43, 23 ib2(130 kDa) and alpha 34%.

Natural Collagen Inventia contains many radicals of glysine (30.4%), proline (11.3%), alanine (8.0%), hydroxyproline (7.8%), glutamine (6.1%), and arginine (4.6%).

The remainder are proteins of 70-150 kDa, including elastin, free amino acids, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates and amines to stabilise the triple helix and make it more stable in terms of temperature. What is more, the preparation is enriched in lactic acid, which is a NMF (Natural Moisturising Factor) component.

Internal and organoleptic features

The preparation has a homogenous, gel-like consistency, without any lumps or impurities. It is transparent, lightly opalescent and has a weak, characteristic smell.